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Book of the dead ka

book of the dead ka

The statement of the Tibetan Book of the Dead, that motivated me most, adaptation of the illustrious Tibetan Book of the Dead, which he .. sierraleone.nu . Unitys preisgekröntes Demo-Team, die Entwicker von "Adam", freuen sich, Book of the Dead vorzustellen, eine interaktive First-Person-Präsentation, die die. Unitys preisgekröntes Demo-Team, die Entwicker von "Adam", freuen sich, Book of the Dead vorzustellen, eine interaktive First-Person-Präsentation, die die.

The greater the number of places a name was used, the greater the possibility it would survive to be read and spoken. It was associated with thought, but not as an action of the mind; rather, it was intellect as a living entity.

In this sense, it even developed into a sort of ghost or roaming dead being when the tomb was not in order any more during the Twentieth Dynasty.

It could be invoked by prayers or written letters left in the tomb's offering chapel also in order to help living family members, e. Ceremonies conducted by priests after death, including the " opening of the mouth wp r ", aimed not only to restore a person's physical abilities in death, but also to release a Ba 's attachment to the body.

Egyptians conceived of an afterlife as quite similar to normal physical existence — but with a difference. The model for this new existence was the journey of the Sun.

At night the Sun descended into the Duat or "underworld". Eventually the Sun meets the body of the mummified Osiris.

Osiris and the Sun, re-energized by each other, rise to new life for another day. For the deceased, their body and their tomb were their personal Osiris and a personal Duat.

For this reason they are often addressed as "Osiris". The Book of the Dead , the collection of spells which aided a person in the afterlife, had the Egyptian name of the Book of going forth by day.

They helped people avoid the perils of the afterlife and also aided their existence, containing spells to ensure "not dying a second time in the underworld", and to "grant memory always" to a person.

In the Egyptian religion it was possible to die in the afterlife and this death was permanent. The tomb of Paheri, an Eighteenth dynasty nomarch of Nekhen , has an eloquent description of this existence, and is translated by James Peter Allen as:.

Your life happening again, without your ba being kept away from your divine corpse, with your ba being together with the akh You shall emerge each day and return each evening.

A lamp will be lit for you in the night until the sunlight shines forth on your breast. You shall be told: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.

The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later. The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus. From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script.

The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.

Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.

Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.

The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qur'an.

In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.

He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E.

Wallis Budge , Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation — including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations of the Papyrus of Ani , though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.

Allen and Raymond O. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtexte , focused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism.

Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts.

Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the midth century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible.

In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced.

However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See Lanzone, Dizionario , p.

This god was, in one aspect, a destroyer of created things; compare , Naville, op. The darkness personified was Apep, Nak, etc. The House of the Prince[1] keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the 12 mighty dwelling.

The gods are glad [when] they see Ra in his rising; his beams flood the world with light. May I see Horus in charge of the rudder, with Thoth.

May he grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani to behold the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without ceasing, every day; and may my soul 18 come forth and walk hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth.

May my name be proclaimed when it is found upon the board of the table of 22 offerings; may offerings be made unto me in my 24 presence, even as they are made unto the followers of Horus; may there be prepared for me a seat in the boat of the Sun on the day of the going forth of the 26 god; and may I be received into the presence of Osiris in the land 28 of triumph!

The following versions of this chapter are taken from: Naville, Todtenbuch , Bd. British Museum Papyrus No. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, 2 who saith: Thou risest, thou risest, thou Ra shinest, 3 thou shinest, at dawn of day.

Thou art crowned like unto the king of the gods, and the goddess Shuti doeth homage unto thee. Thou goest forth over the upper air and thy heart is filled with gladness.

Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace. Thy foe hath been cast down and his 7 head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown.

The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the followers] of the great god.

May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with. Thou 19 wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide.

The 20 starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, 21 arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day.

Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the 22 fiend hath fallen. The goddess Nehebka is in 23 the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth.

Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child.

When 4 he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy.

The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen 5 exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise 6 him with one accord.

The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice 7 within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat.

Thou hast arrived in the atet boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. O Lord of the gods, when thou 8 dost create them, they ascribe praises unto thee.

The azure goddess Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god Nu floodeth thee with his rays of light.

When thou goest forth over the earth I will sing praises unto thy fair 11 face. Thou risest in the horizon of heaven, and [thy] disk is adored [when] it resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the world.

Saith Qenna the merchant, triumphant: Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert yesterday, O mighty youth who hast created thyself.

of dead book ka the -

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Book Of The Dead Ka Video

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Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book. At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all.

They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.

Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense. In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied.

It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.

There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.

For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession". Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice.

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m.

The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.

The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.

From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

The names and titles of the deceased are written in perpendicular rows of hieroglyphics. The character of the handwriting changes in different periods: The papyri upon which such texts are written vary in length from three to about thirty feet, and in width from nine to eighteen inches; as we approach the period of the XXVIth dynasty the texture becomes coarser and the material is darker in colour.

The Theban papyri of this period are lighter in colour than those found in the north of Egypt and are less brittle; they certainly suffer less in unrolling.

The Books of the Dead written in the hieroglyphic and hieratic characters which belong to the period of the rule of the priest-kings of the brotherhood of Amen form a class by themselves, and have relatively little in common with the older versions.

A remarkable example of this class is the papyrus of Nesi-Khonsu which M. The text is divided into paragraphs, which contain neither prayers nor hymns but a veritable contract between the god Amen-Ra and the princess Nesi-Khonsu.

After the list of the names and titles of Amen-Ra with which it begins follow eleven sections wherein the god declares in legal phraseology that he hath deified the princess in Amenta and in Neter-khert; that he hath deified her soul and her body in order that neither may be destroyed; that he hath made her divine like every god and goddess; and that he hath decreed that whatever is necessary for her in her new existence shall be done for her, even as it is done for every other god and goddess.

The chapters have a fixed and definite order, and it seems that a careful revision of the whole work was carried out, and that several alterations of an important nature were made in it.

A number of chapters which are not found in older papyri appear during this period; but these are not necessarily new inventions, for, as the kings of the XXVIth dynasty are renowned for having revived the arts and sciences and literature of the earliest dynasties, it is quite possible that many or most of the additional chapters are nothing more than new editions of extracts from older works.

Many copies of this version were written by scribes who did not understand what they were copying, and omissions of signs, words, and even whole passages are very common; in papyri of the Ptolemaic period it is impossible to read many passages without the help of texts of earlier periods.

Hieroglyphic texts are written in black, in perpendicular rows between rules, and hieratic texts in horizontal lines; both the hieroglyphics and the hieratic characters lack the boldness of the writing of the Theban period, and exhibit the characteristics of a conventional hand.

The titles of the chapters, catchwords, the words which introduce a variant reading, etc. The vignettes are usually traced in black outline, and form a kind of continuous border above the text.

In some papyri the disk on the head of the hawk of Horus is covered with gold leaf, instead of being painted red as is usual in older papyri. In this period also certain passages of the text were copied in hieratic and Demotic upon small pieces of papyri which were buried with portions of the bodies of the dead, and upon narrow bandages of coarse linen in which they were swathed.

The chief features of the Egyptian religion remained unchanged from the Vth and VIth dynasties down to the period when the Egyptians embraced Christianity, after the preaching of St.

Mark the Apostle in Alexandria, A. It is not necessary here to repeat the proofs, of this fact which M. The chief gods mentioned in the pyramid texts are identical with those whose names are given on tomb, coffin and papyrus in the latest dynasties; and if the names of the great cosmic gods, such as Ptah and Khnemu, are of rare occurrence, it should be remembered that the gods of the dead must naturally occupy the chief place in this literature which concerns the dead.

Furthermore, we find that the doctrine of eternal life and of the resurrection of a glorified or transformed body, based upon the ancient story of the resurrection of Osiris after a cruel death and horrible mutilation, inflicted by the powers of evil, was the same in all periods, and that the legends of the most ancient times were accepted without material alteration or addition in the texts of the later dynasties.

Le Christianisme chez les anciens Coptes , in Revue des Religions , t, xiv. The story of Osiris is nowhere found in a connected form in Egyptian literature, but everywhere, and in texts of all periods, the life, sufferings, death and resurrection of Osiris are accepted as facts universally admitted.

Greek writers have preserved in their works traditions concerning this god, and to Plutarch in particular we owe an important version of the legend as current in his day.

It is clear that in some points he errs, but this was excusable in dealing with a series of traditions already some four thousand years old.

When Helios discovered the intrigue, he cursed his wife and declared that she should not be delivered of her child in any month or in any year.

Then the god Hermes, who also loved Rhea, played at tables with Selene and won from her the seventieth part of each day of the year, which, added together, made five whole days.

These he joined to the three hundred and sixty days of which the year then consisted. In course of time he became king of Egypt, and devoted himself to civilizing his subjects and to teaching them the craft of the husbandman; he established a code of laws and bade men worship the gods.

Having made Egypt peaceful and flourishing, he set out to instruct the other nations of the world. During his absence his wife Isis so well ruled the state that Typhon [Set], the evil one, could do no harm to the realm of Osiris.

When Osiris came again, Typhon plotted with seventy-two comrades, and with Aso, the queen of Ethiopia, to slay him; and secretly got the measure of the body of Osiris, and made ready a fair chest, which was brought into his banqueting hall when Osiris was present together with other guests.

By a ruse Osiris was induced to lie down in the chest, which was immediately closed by Typhon and his fellow conspirators, who conveyed it to the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile.

For the text see De Iside et Osiride , ed. Didot Scripta Moralia, t. The days are called in hieroglyphics , "the five additional days of the year," e?

Kalendarische Inschriften , Leipzig, , pp. Osiris was born on the first day, Horus on the second, Set on the third, Isis on the fourth, and Nephthys on the fifth; the first, third, and fifth of these days were considered unlucky by the Egyptians.

The first to know of what had happened were the Pans and Satyrs, who dwelt hard by Panopolis; and finally the news was brought to Isis at Coptos, whereupon she cut off a lock of hair[2] and put on mourning apparel.

She then set out in deep grief to find her husband's body, and in the course of her wanderings she discovered that Osiris had been united with her sister Nephthys, and that Anubis, the offspring of the union, had been exposed by his mother as soon as born.

Isis tracked him by the help of dogs, and bred him up to be her guard and attendant. The king of the country, admiring the tree, cut it down and made a pillar for the roof of his house of that part which contained the body of Osiris.

When Isis heard of this she went to Byblos, and, gaining admittance to the palace through the report of the royal maidens, she was made nurse to one of the king's sons, Instead of nursing the child in the ordinary way, Isis gave him her finger to suck, and each night she put him into the fire to consume his mortal parts, changing herself the while into a swallow and bemoaning her fate.

But the queen once happened to see her son in flames, and cried out, and thus deprived him of immortality.

Then Isis told the queen her story and begged for the pillar which supported the roof. This she cut open, and took out the chest and her husband's body,[3] and her lamentations were so terrible that one of the royal children died of fright.

She then brought the. In the Calendar in the fourth Sallier papyrus No. See Chabas, Le Calendrier , p. Here we have Plutarch's statement supported by documentary evidence.

Some very interesting details concerning the festivals of Osiris in the month Choiak are given by Loret in Recueil de Travaux , t.

The various mysteries which took place thereat are minutely described. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites , p.

Plutarch adds that the piece of wood is, to this day, preserved in the temple of Isis, and worshipped by the people of Byblos. Robertson Smith suggests Religion of the Semites , p.

That some sort of drapery belonged to the Ashera is clear from 2 Kings xxiii. See also Tylor, Primitive Culture , vol. Then she sought her son Horus in Buto, in Lower Egypt, first having hidden the chest in a secret place.

But Typhon, one night hunting by the light of the moon, found the chest, and, recognizing the body, tore it into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and down throughout the land.

When Isis heard of this she took a boat made of papyrus[1]--a plant abhorred by crocodiles--and sailing about she gathered the fragments of Osiris's body.

But now Horus had grown up, and being encouraged to the use of arms by Osiris, who returned from the other world, he went out to do battle with Typhon, the murderer of his father.

The fight lasted many days, and Typhon was made captive. But Isis, to whom the care of the prisoner was given, so far from aiding her son Horus, set Typhon at liberty.

Horus in his rage tore from her head the royal diadem; but Thoth gave her a helmet in the shape of a cow's head. In two other battles fought between Horus and Typhon, Horus was the victor.

This is the story of the sufferings and death of Osiris as told by Plutarch. Osiris was the god through whose sufferings and death the Egyptian hoped that his body might rise again in some transformed or glorified shape, and to him who had conquered death and had become the king of the other world the Egyptian appealed in prayer for eternal life through his victory and power.

In every funeral inscription known to us, from the pyramid texts down to the roughly written prayers upon coffins of the Roman period, what is done for Osiris is done also for the deceased, the state and condition of Osiris are the state and condition of.

An account of the battle is also given in the IVth Sallier papyrus, wherein we are told that it took place on the 26th day of the month Thoth.

Horus and Set fought in the form of two men, but they afterwards changed themselves into two bears, and they passed three days and three nights in this form.

Victory inclined now to one side, and now to the other, and the heart of Isis suffered bitterly. When Horus saw that she loosed the fetters which he had laid upon Set, he became like a "raging panther of the south with fury," and she fled before him; but he pursued her, and cut off her head, which Thoth transformed by his words of magical power and set upon her body again in the form of that of a cow.

In the calendars the 26th day of Thoth was marked triply deadly. If Osiris liveth for ever, the deceased will live for ever; if Osiris dieth, then will the deceased perish.

The origin of Plutarch's story of the death of Osiris, and the Egyptian conception of his nature and attributes, may be gathered from the following very remarkable hymn.

Thou makest 5 plants to grow at thy desire, thou givest birth to. Thou art the lord to whom hymns of praise are sung in the southern heaven, and unto thee are adorations paid in the northern heaven.

The never setting stars 6 are before thy face, and they are thy thrones, even as also are those that never rest.

An offering cometh to thee by the command of Seb. The company of the gods adoreth thee, the stars of the tuat bow to the earth in adoration before thee, [all] domains pay homage to thee, and the ends of the earth offer entreaty and supplication.

When those who are among the holy ones 7 see thee they tremble at thee, and the whole world giveth praise unto thee when it meeteth thy majesty.

Thou art a glorious sahu among the sahu's , upon thee hath dignity been conferred, thy dominion is eternal, O thou beautiful Form of the company of the gods; thou gracious one who art beloved by him that 8 seeth thee.

Thou settest thy fear in all the world, and through love for thee all proclaim thy name before that of all other gods.

Unto thee are offerings made by all mankind, O thou lord to whom commemorations are made, both in heaven and in earth.

Thou art the chief and prince of thy brethren, thou art the prince of the company of the gods, thou stablishest right and truth everywhere, thou placest thy son upon thy throne, thou art the object of praise of thy father Seb, and of the love of thy mother Nut.

Thou art exceeding mighty, thou overthrowest those who oppose thee, thou art mighty of hand, and thou slaughterest thine 10 enemy.

Thou settest thy fear in thy foe, thou removest his boundaries, thy heart is fixed, and thy feet are watchful. Thou art the heir of Seb and the sovereign of all the earth;.

Seb hath seen thy glorious power, and hath commanded thee to direct the 11 universe for ever and ever by thy hand. Thou shinest in the horizon, thou sendest forth thy light into the darkness, thou makest the darkness light with thy double plume, and thou floodest the world with light like the 13 Disk at break of day.

Thy diadem pierceth heaven and becometh a brother unto the stars, O thou form of every god. Thou art gracious in command and in speech, thou art the favoured one of the great company of the gods, and thou art the greatly beloved one of the lesser company of the gods.

The glorious Isis was perfect in command and in speech, and she avenged her brother. She overshadowed him with her feathers, she made wind with her wings, and she uttered cries at the burial of her brother.

Literally, "she alighted not,"; the whole passage here justifies Plutarch's statement De Iside Osiride , 16 concerning Isis: Later in the XVIIIth, or early in the XIXth dynasty, we find Osiris called "the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in the duration of his life, the firstborn son of the womb of Nut, begotten of Seb, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, the king of kings, the lord of lords, the prince of princes, the governor of the world, from the womb of Nut, whose existence is for everlasting,[1] Unnefer of many forms and of many attributes, Tmu in Annu, the lord of Akert,[2] the only one, the lord of the land on each side of the celestial Nile.

He is called "the soul that liveth again,"[6] "the being who becometh a child again," "the firstborn son of unformed matter, the lord of multitudes of aspects and forms, the lord of time and bestower of years, the lord of life for all eternity.

The text of this work, transcribed into hieroglyphics, was published, with a Latin translation, by Brugsch, under the title, Sai an Sinsin sive Aber Metempsychosis veterum Aegyptiorum , Berlin, ; and an English translation of the same work, but made from a Paris MS.

The hieratic text of this work is published with a French translation by p. The ideas and beliefs which the Egyptians held in reference to a future existence are not readily to be defined, owing to the many difficulties in translating religious texts and in harmonizing the statements made in different works of different periods.

Some confusion of details also seems to have existed in the minds of the Egyptians themselves, which cannot be cleared up until the literature of the subject has been further studied and until more texts have been published.

That the Egyptians believed in a future life of some kind is certain; and the doctrine of eternal existence is the leading feature of their religion, and is enunciated with the utmost clearness in all periods.

Whether this belief had its origin at Annu, the chief city of the worship of the sun-god, is not certain, but is very probable; for already in the pyramid texts we find the idea of everlasting life associated with the sun's existence, and Pepi I.

To this end all the religious literature of Egypt was composed. Let us take the following extracts from texts of the VIth dynasty as illustrations: Recueil Travaux , t.

The context runs "Thy Sceptre is in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto the living ones. The Mekes and Nehbet sceptres are in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto those whose abodes are secret.

In the papyrus of Ani the deceased is represented as having come to a place remote and far away, where there is neither air to breathe nor water to drink, but where he holds converse with Tmu.

In answer to his question, "How long have I to live? In the LXXXIVth Chapter, as given in the same papyrus, the infinite duration of the past and future existence of the soul, as well as its divine nature, is proclaimed by Ani in the words: When the deceased identifies himself with Shu, he makes the period of his existence coeval with that of Tmu-Ra, i.

But while we have this evidence of the Egyptian belief in eternal life, we are nowhere told that man's corruptible body will rise again; indeed, the following extracts show that the idea prevailed that the body lay in the earth while the soul or spirit lived in heaven.

There is, however, no doubt that from first to last the Egyptians firmly believed that besides the soul there was some other element of the man that would rise again.

The preservation of the corruptible body too was in some way connected with the life in the world to come, and its preservation was necessary to ensure eternal life; otherwise the prayers recited to this end would have been futile, and the time honoured custom of mummifying the dead would have had no meaning.

The never ending existence of the soul is asserted in a passage quoted above without reference to Osiris; but the frequent mention of the uniting of his bones, and of the gathering together of his members,[3] and the doing away with all corruption from his body, seems to show that the pious Egyptian connected these things with the resurrection of his own body in some form, and he argued that what had been done for him who was proclaimed to be giver and source of life must be necessary for mortal man.

The physical body of man considered as a whole was called khat , a word which seems to be connected with the idea of something which is liable to decay.

The word is also applied to the mummified body in the tomb, as we know from the words "My body khat is buried. Already in the pyramid texts we have "Rise up, O thou Teta!

Thou hast received thy head, thou hast knitted together thy bones, thou hast collected thy members. As we have seen above, the body neither leaves the tomb nor reappears on earth; yet its preservation was necessary.

Thus the deceased addresses Tmu[2]: I am whole, even as my father Khepera was whole, who is to me the type of that which passeth not away. Come then, O Form, and give breath unto me, O lord of breath, O thou who art greater than thy compeers.

Stablish thou me, and form thou me, O thou who art lord of the grave. Grant thou to me to endure for ever, even as thou didst grant unto thy father Tmu to endure; and his body neither passed away nor decayed.

I have not done that which is hateful unto thee, nay, I have spoken that which thy ka loveth: Homage to thee, O my father Osiris, thy flesh suffered no decay, there were no worms in thee, thou didst not crumble away, thou didst not wither away, thou didst not become corruption and worms; and I myself am Khepera, I shall possess my flesh for ever and ever, I shall not decay, I shall not crumble away, I shall not wither away, I shall not become corruption.

But the body does not lie in the tomb inoperative, for by the prayers and ceremonies on the day of burial it is endowed with the power of changing into a sahu , or spiritual body.

Thus we have such phrases as, "I germinate like the plants,"[3] "My flesh germinateth,"[4] "I exist, I exist, I live, I live, I germinate, I germinate,"[5] "thy soul liveth, thy body germinateth by the command of Ra.

This chapter was found inscribed upon one of the linen wrappings of the mummy of Thothmes III. The body which has become a sahu has the power of associating with the soul and of holding converse with it.

In this form it can ascend into heaven and dwell with the gods, and with the sahu of the gods, and with the souls of the righteous.

In the pyramid texts we have these passages: Recueil de Travaux , t. From line of the same text it would seem that a man had more than one sahu , for the words "all thy sahu ," occur.

This may, however, be only a plural of majesty. In the late edition of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius the deceased is said to " look upon his body and to rest upon his sahu ,"[4] and souls are said "to enter into their sahu ";[5] and a passage extant both in this and the older Theban edition makes the deceased to receive the sahu of the god Osiris.

In close connection with the natural and spiritual bodies stood the heart, or rather that part of it which was the seat of the power of life and the fountain of good and evil thoughts.

And in addition to the natural and spiritual bodies, man also bad an abstract individuality or personality endowed with all his characteristic attributes.

This abstract personality had an absolutely independent existence. It could move freely from place to place, separating itself from, or uniting itself to,.

The funeral offerings of meat, cakes, ale, wine, unguents, etc. The ka dwelt in the man's statue just as the ka of a god inhabited the statue of the god.

In this respect the ka seems to be identical with the sekhem or image. In the remotest times the tombs had special chambers wherein the ka was worshipped and received offerings.

The priesthood numbered among its body an order of men who bore the name of "priests of the ka and who performed services in honour of the ka in the " ka chapel".

In the text of Unas the deceased is said to be "happy with his ka"[2] in the next world, and his ka is joined unto his body in "the great dwelling"; [3] his body.

The first scholar who seriously examined the meaning of the word was Dr. In September, , V. In March, , Mr. Renouf read a paper entitled "On the true sense of an important Egyptian word" Trans.

Maspero; and in September of the same year M. Maspero again treated the subject in Recueil de Travaux , t. The various shades of meaning in the word have been discussed subsequently by Brugsch, Wörterbuch Suppl.

The ka , as we have seen, could eat food, and it was necessary to provide food for it. In the XIIth dynasty and in later periods the gods are entreated to grant meat and drink to the ka of the deceased; and it seems as if the Egyptians thought that the future welfare of the spiritual body depended upon the maintenance of a constant supply of sepulchral offerings.

When circumstances rendered it impossible to continue the material supply of food, the ka fed upon the offerings painted on the walls of the tomb, which were transformed into suitable nourishment by means of the prayers of the living.

When there were neither material offerings nor painted similitudes to feed upon, it seems as if the ka must have perished; but the texts are not definite on this point.

May I have my mouth that I may speak therewith like the followers of Horus, may I come forth to heaven, may I descend to earth, may I never be shut out upon the road, may there never be done unto me that which my soul abhorreth, let not my soul be imprisoned, but may I be among the venerable and favoured ones, may I plough my lands in the Field of Aaru, may I arrive at the Field of Peace, may one come out to me with vessels of ale and cakes and bread of the lords of eternity, may I receive meat from the altars of the great, I the ka of the prophet Amsu.

To that part of man which beyond all doubt was believed to enjoy an eternal existence in heaven in a state of glory, the Egyptians gave the name ba , a word which means something like "sublime," "noble," and which has always hitherto been translated by "soul.

It revisited the body in the tomb and re-animated it, and conversed with it; it could take upon itself any shape that it pleased; and it had the power of passing into heaven and of dwelling with the perfected souls there.

As the ba was closely associated with the ka , it partook of the funeral offerings, and in one aspect of its existence at least it was liable to decay if not properly and sufficiently nourished.

In the pyramid texts the permanent dwelling place of the ba or soul is heaven with the gods, whose life it shares.

In connection with the ka and ba must be mentioned the khaibit or shadow of the man, which the Egyptians regarded as a part of the human economy.

It was supposed to have an entirely independent existence and to be able to separate itself from the body; it was free to move wherever it pleased, and, like the ka and ba , it partook of the funeral offerings in the tomb, which it visited at will.

The mention of the shade, whether of a god or man, in the pyramid texts is unfrequent, and it is not easy to ascertain what views were held concerning it; but from the passage in the text of Unas,[2] where it is mentioned together with the souls and spirits and bones of the gods, it is evident that already at that early date its position in relation to man was well defined.

From the collection of illustrations which Dr. Birch appended to his paper On the Shade or Shadow of the Dead ,[3] it is quite clear that in later times at least the shadow was always associated with the soul and was believed to be always near it; and this view is.

Another important and apparently eternal part of man was the khu , which, judging from the meaning of the word, may be defined as a "shining" or translucent, intangible casing or covering of the body, which is frequently depicted in the form of a mummy.

For want of a better word khu has often been translated "shining one," "glorious," "intelligence," and the like, but in certain cases it may be tolerably well rendered by "spirit.

Thus it is said, "Unas standeth with the khu's ,"[3] and one of the gods is asked to "give him his sceptre among the khu's ; "[4] when the souls of the gods enter into Unas, their khu's are with and round about him.

And again, when the god Khent-mennut-f has transported the king to heaven, the god Seb, who rejoices to meet him, is said to give him both hands and welcome him as a brother and to nurse him and to place him among the imperishable khu's.

Yet another part of a man was supposed to exist in heaven, to which the Egyptians gave the name sekhem. The word has been rendered by "power," "form," and the like, but it is very difficult to find any expression which will represent the Egyptian conception of the sekhem.

It is mentioned in connection with the soul and khu , as will be seen from the following passages from the pyramid texts. A name of Ra was[3] sekhem ur , the "Great Sekhem," and Unas is identified with him and called: Finally, the name, ren , of a man was believed to exist in heaven, and.

Thus, as we have seen, the whole man consisted of a natural body, a spiritual body, a heart, a double, a soul, a shadow, an intangible ethereal casing or spirit, a form, and a name.

All these were, however, bound together inseparably, and the welfare of any single one of them concerned the welfare of all. For the well-being of the spiritual parts it was necessary to preserve from decay the natural body; and.

The texts are silent as to the time when the immortal part began its beatified existence; but it is probable that the Osiris[2] of a man only attained to the full enjoyment of spiritual happiness after the funeral ceremonies had been duly per formed and the ritual recited.

Comparatively few particulars are known of the manner of life of the soul in heaven, and though a number of interesting facts may be gleaned from the texts of all periods, it is very difficult to harmonize them.

This result is due partly to the different views held by different schools of thought in ancient Egypt, and partly to the fact that on some points the Egyptians them selves seem to have had no decided opinions.

We depend upon the pyramid texts for our knowledge of their earliest conceptions of a future life. The life of the Osiris of a man in heaven is at once material and spiritual and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in breaking away from their very ancient habit of confusing the things of the body with the things of the soul.

They believed in an incorporeal and immortal part of man, the constituent elements of which flew to heaven after death and embalmment; yet the theologians of the VIth dynasty had decided that there was some part of the deceased which could only mount to heaven by means of a ladder.

In the pyramid of Teta it is said, "When Teta hath purified himself on the borders of this earth where Ra hath purified himself, he prayeth and setteth up the ladder, and those who dwell in the great place press Teta forward with their hands.

The Osiris consisted of all the spiritual parts of a man gathered together in a form which resembled him exactly. Whatever honour was paid to the mummified body was received by its Osiris, the offerings made to it were accepted by its Osiris, and the amulets laid upon it were made use of by its Osiris for its own protection.

The sahu , the ka , the ba , the khu , the khaibit , the sekhem , and the ren were in primeval times separate and independent parts of man's immortal nature; but in the pyramid texts they are welded together, and the dead king Pepi is addressed as "Osiris Pepi.

In the pyramid of Unas it is said, "Ra setteth upright the ladder for Osiris, and Horus raiseth up the ladder for his father Osiris, when Osiris goeth to [find] his soul; one standeth on the one side, and the other standeth on the other, and Unas is betwixt them.

Unas standeth up and is Horus, he sitteth down and is Set. This Pepi is thy son, this Pepi is Horus, thou hast given birth unto this Pepi even as thou hast given birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder.

Thou hast given him the Ladder of God, and thou hast given him the Ladder of Set, whereon this Pepi hath gone forth into heaven.

Every khu and every god stretcheth out his hand unto this Pepi when he cometh forth into heaven by the Ladder of God. Pepi hath gathered together his bones, he hath collected his flesh, and Pepi hath gone straightway into heaven by means of the two fingers of the god who is the Lord of the Ladder.

When the Osiris of a man has entered into heaven as a living soul,[4] he is regarded as one of those who "have eaten the eye of Horus he walks among.

Moreover, his body as a whole is identified with the God of Heaven. For example it is said concerning Unas: Further, this identification of the deceased with the God of Heaven places him in the position of supreme ruler.

For example, we have the prayer that Unas "may rule the nine gods and complete the company of the nine gods,"[1] and Pepi I.

Again, the deceased is changed into Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis. It is said of Pepi I. When Pepi standeth upon the north of heaven with Ra, he becometh lord of the universe like unto the king of the gods.

The place of the deceased in heaven is by the side of God[11] in the most holy place,[12] and he becomes God and an angel of God;[13] he himself is triumphant,[14].

A somewhat different view of the signification of maakheru is given by Virey Tombeau de Rekhmara, Paris, , p. The offerings which were painted on the walls of the tomb were actually enjoyed by the deceased in his new state of being.

The Egyptians called them " per kheru ," that is to say, " the things which the word or the demand made to appear ," or " per hru kheru ," that is to say, " the things which presented themselves at the word " or " at the demand " of the deceased.

The deceased was then called " maa kheru ," that is to say, " he who realizes his word ," or " he who realizes while he speaks ," or " whose voice or demand realizes ," or " whose voice or demand makes true, or makes to be really and actually " that which only appears in painting on the walls of the tomb.

It is possible that maa-kheru may mean simply "blessed. He goes round about heaven even as they do, and he partakes of their food of figs and wine.

Those who would be hostile to the deceased become thereby foes of the god Tmu, and all injuries inflicted on him are inflicted on that god;[1] he dwells without fear under the protection of the gods,[2] from whose loins he has come forth.

His calamities are brought to an end, for Unas hath been purified with the Eye of Horus; the calamities of Unas have been done away by Isis and Nephthys.

Unas is in heaven, Unas is in heaven, in the form of air, in the form of air; he perisheth not, neither doth anything which is in him perish. Those who row Ra up into the heavens row him also, and those who row Ra beneath the horizon row him also.

Thy soul is with thee in thy body, thy form of strength is behind thee, thy crown is upon thy head, thy head-dress is upon thy shoulders, thy face is before thee, and those who sing songs of joy are upon both sides of thee; those who follow in the train of God are behind thee, and the divine forms who make God to come are upon each side of thee.

God cometh, and Pepi hath come upon the throne of Osiris. The shining one who dwelleth in Netat, the divine form that dwelleth in Teni, hath come.

Isis speaketh unto thee, Nephthys holdeth converse with thee, and the shining ones come unto thee bowing down even to the ground in adoration at thy feet, by reason of the writing which thou hast, O Pepi, in the region of Saa.

Thou comest forth to thy mother Nut, and she strengtheneth thy arm, and she maketh a way for thee through the sky to the place where Ra abideth.

Thou hast opened the gates of the sky, thou hast opened the doors of the celestial deep; thou hast found Ra and he watcheth over thee, he hath taken thee by thy hand, he hath led thee into the two regions of heaven, and he hath placed thee on the throne of Osiris.

Then hail, O Pepi, for the Eye of Horus came to hold converse with thee; thy soul which was among the gods came unto thee; thy form of power which was dwelling among the shining ones came unto thee.

As a son fighteth for his father, and as Horus avenged Osiris, even so doth Horus defend Pepi against his enemies. Thou doest that which he doeth among the immortal shining ones; thy soul sitteth upon its throne being provided with thy form, and it doeth that which thou doest in the presence of Him that liveth among the living, by the command of Ra, the great god.

It reapeth the wheat, it cutteth the barley, and it giveth it unto thee. Now, therefore, O Pepi, he that hath given unto thee life and all power and eternity and the power of speech and thy body is Ra.

Thou hast endued thyself with the forms of God, and thou hast become magnified thereby before the gods who dwell in the Lake. Hail, Pepi, thy soul standeth among the gods and among the shining ones, and the fear of thee striketh into their hearts.

Hail, Pepi, thou placest thyself upon the throne of Him that dwelleth among the living, and it is the writing which thou hast [that striketh terror] into their hearts.

Thy name shall live upon earth, thy name shall flourish upon earth, thou shalt neither perish nor be destroyed for ever and for ever.

Side by side, however, with the passages which speak of the material and spiritual enjoyments of the deceased, we have others which seem to imply that the Egyptians believed in a corporeal existence,[1] or at least in the capacity for corporeal enjoyment, in the future state.

This belief may have rested upon the view that the life in the next world was but a continuation of the life upon earth, which it resembled closely, or it may have been due to the survival of semi-savage gross ideas incorporated into the religious texts of the Egyptians.

However this may be, it is quite certain that in the Vth dynasty the deceased king Unas eats with his mouth, and exercises other natural functions of the body, and gratifies his passions.

Here all creation is represented as being in terror when they see the deceased king rise up as a soul in the form of a god who devours "his fathers and mothers"; he feeds upon men and also upon gods.

He hunts the gods in the fields and snares them; and when they are tied up for slaughter he cuts their throats and disembowels them.

He roasts and eats the best of them, but the old gods and goddesses are used for fuel. By eating them he imbibes both their magical powers, and their khu's.

He becomes the "great Form, the form among forms, and the god of all the great gods who "exist in visible forms,"[1] and he is at the head of all the sahu , or spiritual bodies in heaven.

He carries off the hearts of the gods, and devours the wisdom of every god; therefore the duration of his life is everlasting and he lives to all eternity, for the souls of the gods and their khu's are in him.

The whole passage reads: Unas is the lord of wisdom, and his mother knoweth not his name. The gifts of Unas are in heaven, and he hath become mighty in the horizon like unto Tmu, the father that gave him birth, and after Tmu gave him birth Unas became stronger than his father.

See Maspero, Recueil , t. The powers of Unas protect him; Unas is a bull in heaven, he directeth his steps where he will, he liveth upon the form which each god taketh upon himself, and be eateth the flesh of those who come to fill their bellies with the magical charms ill the Lake of Fire.

Unas is equipped with power against the shining spirits thereof, and he riseth up in the form of the mighty one, the lord of those who dwell in power?

Unas hath taken his seat with his side turned towards Seb. Unas is the lord of offerings, the untier of the knot, and he himself maketh abundant the offerings of meat and drink.

He that cutteth off hairy scalps and dwelleth in the fields hath netted the gods in a snare; he that arrangeth his head hath considered them [good] for Unas and hath driven them unto him; and the cord-master hath bound them for slaughter.

Khonsu the slayer of [his] lords hath cut their throats and drawn out their inward parts, for it was he whom Unas sent to drive them in; and Shesem hath cut them in pieces and boiled their members in his blazing caldrons.

The mighty ones in heaven shoot out fire under the caldrons which are heaped up with the haunches of the firstborn; and he that maketh those who live in heaven to revolve round Unas hath shot into the caldrons the haunches of their women; he hath gone round about the two heavens in their entirety, and he hath gone round about the two banks of the celestial Nile.

Unas is the great Form, the Form of forms, and Unas is the chief of the gods in visible forms. Whatever he hath found upon his path he hath eaten forthwith, and the magical might of Unas is before that of all the sahu who dwell in the horizon.

Unas is the firstborn of the first born. Unas hath gone round thousands and he hath offered oblations unto hundreds; he hath manifested his might as the Great Form through Sah Orion [who is greater] than the gods.

Unas repeateth his rising in heaven and he is the crown of the lord of the horizon. He hath reckoned up the bandlets and the arm-rings, he hath taken possession of the hearts of the gods Unas hath eaten the red crown, and he hath swallowed the white crown; the food of Unas is the inward parts, and his meat is those who live upon magical charms in their hearts.

Behold, Unas eateth of that which the red crown sendeth forth, he increaseth, and the magical charms of the gods are in his belly; that which belongeth to him is not turned back from him.

Unas hath eaten the whole of the knowledge of every god, and the period of his life is eternity, and the duration of his existence is everlastingness, in whatsoever he wisheth to take; whatsoever form he hateth he shall not labour in in the horizon for ever and ever and ever.

The soul of the gods is in Unas, their spirits are with Unas, and the offerings made unto him are more than those made unto the gods.

The fire of Unas is in their bones, for their soul is with Unas, and their shades are with those who belong unto them.

The notion that, by eating the flesh, or particularly by drinking the blood, of another living being, a man absorbs his nature or life into his own, is one which appears among primitive peoples in many forms.

The Australian blacks kill a man, cut out his caul-fat, and rub themselves with it, "the belief being that all the qualifications, both physical and mental of the previous owner of the fat, were communicated to him who used it"; see Fraser, Golden Bough , vol.

To the great and supreme power which made the earth, the heavens, the sea, the sky, men and women, animals, birds, and creeping things, all that is and all that shall be, the Egyptians gave the name neter.

This word survives in the Coptic , but both in the ancient language and in its younger relative the exact meaning of the word is lost.

By a quotation from the stele of Canopus he shows that in Ptolemaic times it meant "holy" or "sacred" when applied to the animals of the gods. Maspero, however, thinks that the Coptic nomti has nothing in common with meter, the Egyptian word for God, and that the passages quoted by Mr.

Renouf in support of his theory can be otherwise explained. The fact that the Coptic translators of the Bible used the word nouti to express the name of the Supreme Being shows that no other word conveyed to their minds their conception of Him, and supports M.

Maspero's views on this point. But side by side with neter , whatever it may mean, we have mentioned in texts of all ages a number of beings called neteru which Egyptologists universally translate by the word "gods.

The difference between the conceptions of neter the one supreme God and the neteru is best shown by an appeal to Egyptian texts.

Die thätige Kraft, welche in periodischer Wiederkehr die Dinge erzeugt und erschafft, ihnen neues Leben verleiht und die Jugendfrische zurückgiebt.

All these extracts are from texts of the Vth and VIth dynasties. It may be urged that we might as well translate neter by "a god" or "the god," but other evidence of the conception of neter at that early date is afforded by the following passages from the Prisse papyrus,[5] which, although belonging at the earliest to he XIth dynasty, contains copies of the Precepts of Kaqemna, written in the reign of Seneferu, a king of the IVth dynasty, and the Precepts of Ptah-hetep, written during the reign of Assa, a king of the Vth dynasty.

Prisse d'Avennes, Paris, , fol. See Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte , p. If, having been of no account, thou hast become great, and if, having been poor, thou hast become rich, when thou art governor of the city be not hard-hearted on account of thy advancement, because.

This work contains the hieratic text divided into sections for analysis, and accompanied by a hieroglyphic transcript, commentary, etc.

This work contains a more accurate hieroglyphic transcript of the hieratic text, full translation, etc.

The following are examples of the use of neter: The passages from the pyramid of Pepi show at once the difference between neter as God, and the "gods" neteru ; the other passages, which might be multiplied almost indefinitely, prove that the Being spoken of is God.

The neteru or "gods" whom Unas hunted, and snared, and killed, and roasted, and ate, are beings who could die; to them were attributed bodies, souls, ka's , spiritual bodies, etc.

Of these mortal gods some curious legends have come down to us; from which the following may be selected as illustrating their inferior position.

Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power; her heart was wearied with the millions of men, and she chose the millions of the gods, but she esteemed more highly the millions of the khu's.

And she meditated in her heart, saying, "Cannot I by means of the sacred name of God make myself mistress of the earth and become a goddess like unto.

The holy one had grown old, he dribbled at the mouth, his spittle fell upon the earth, and his slobbering dropped upon the ground.

And Isis kneaded it with earth in her hand, and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a spear; she set it not upright before her face, but let it lie upon the ground in the path whereby the great god went forth, according to his heart's desire, into his double kingdom.

Now the holy god arose, and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went with him; and he came forth according to his daily wont; and the sacred serpent bit him.

The flame of life departed from him, and he who dwelt among the cedars? The holy god opened his mouth, and the cry of his majesty reached unto heaven.

His company of gods said, "What hath happened? When the great god had stablished his heart, he cried unto those who were in his train, saying, "Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me.

My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not; my hand hath not caused it, nor do I know who hath done this unto me.

Never have I felt such pain, neither can sickness cause more woe than this. I am a prince, the son of a prince, a sacred essence which hath preceded from God.

I am a great one, the son of a great one, and my father planned my name; I have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my existence is in every god.

I have been proclaimed by the heralds Tmu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my name; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the words of power of any seer should have dominion over me.

I came forth to look upon that which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo! My heart is on fire, my flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs.

Let there be brought unto me the children of the gods with healing words and with lips that know, and with power which reacheth unto heaven.

And she spake, saying, "What hath come to pass, O holy father? A serpent hath bitten thee, and a thing which thou hast created hath lifted up his head against thee.

Verily it shall be cast forth by my healing words of power, and I will drive it away from before the sight of thy sunbeams.

The holy god opened his mouth and said, "I was passing along my path, and I was going through the two regions of my lands according to my heart's desire, to see that which I had created, when lo!

I was bitten by a serpent which I saw not. I am colder than water, I am hotter than fire. All my flesh sweateth, I quake, my eye hath no strength, I cannot see the sky, and the sweat rusheth to my face even as in the time of summer.

I have made the heavens, I have stretched out the two horizons like a curtain, and I have placed the soul of the gods within them.

I am he who, if he openeth his eyes, doth make the light, and, if he closeth them, darkness cometh into being. At his command the Nile riseth, and the gods know not his name.

I have made the hours, I have created the days, I bring forward the festivals of the year, I create the Nile-flood. I make the fire of life, and I provide food in the houses.

Then said Isis unto Ra, "What thou hast said is not thy name. O tell it unto me, and the poison shall depart; for he shall live whose name shall be revealed.

And when the time arrived for the heart of Ra to come forth, Isis spake unto her son Horus, saying, "The god hath bound himself by an oath to deliver up his two eyes" i.

Thus was the name of the great god taken from him, and Isis, the lady of enchantments, said, "Depart, poison, go forth from Ra.

O eye of Horus, go forth from the god, and shine outside his mouth. It is I who work, it is I who make to fall down upon the earth the vanquished poison; for the name of the great god hath been taken away from him.

Thus we see that even to the great god Ra were attributed all the weakness and frailty of mortal man; and that "gods" and "goddesses" were classed with beasts and reptiles, which could die and perish.

As a result, it seems that the word "God" should be reserved to express the name of the Creator of the Universe, and that neteru , usually rendered "gods," should be translated by some other word, but what that word should be it is almost impossible to say.

From the attributes of God set forth in Egyptian texts of all periods, Dr. The hieratic text of this story was published by Pleyte and Rossi, Le Papyrus de Turin , , pll.

Pierret adopts the view that the texts show us that the Egyptians believed in One infinite and eternal God who was without a second, and he repeats Champollion's dictum.

Brugsch, who has collected a number of striking passages from the texts. From these passages we may select the following: God is one and alone, and none other existeth with Him--God is the One, the One who hath made all things--God is a spirit, a hidden spirit, the spirit of spirits, the great spirit of the Egyptians, the divine spirit--God is from the beginning, and He hath been from the beginning, He hath existed from old and was when nothing else had being.

He existed when nothing else existed, and what existeth He created after He had come into being, He is the Father of beginnings--God is the eternal One, He is eternal and infinite and endureth for ever and aye--God is hidden and no man knoweth His form.

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